In the last two decades we’ve observed a puzzling paradox – great product managers exist at both market leading and market losing companies. So what else does it take to build a high performing product organization that propels companies up and away? What’s the secret sauce beyond having the best talent and great product craft?
The answer is – Portfolio Product Management Craft (PPM Craft)
What is portfolio management?
In the financial world,
“Portfolio management is the art and science of selecting and overseeing a group of investments that meet the long-term financial objectives and risk tolerance of a client, a company, or an institution.”Investopedia
For winning portfolios, besides focusing on picking the right individual investments, they
- focus on smart allocation to various categories of investments, and
- adjust allocation periodically based on the goals, performance and markets
A winning product organization operates similarly and uses a portfolio approach – to evaluate product categories across its products and allocate resources to best achieve the overall outcomes of the organization. This process is also adjusted periodically in response to the market and company needs.
Does this mean only large organizations with multiple products need product portfolio management (PPM)? Not necessarily, just like everyone may have a financial portfolio regardless of size, the same applies to a product organization. Let’s take a quick look at the history of PPM.
The Evolution of Portfolio Management
Traditionally, product organizations run Product Portfolio Management, which considers each product-line an investment option. For example, the Proctor and Gamble Baby-care portfolio has shampoos, powders, diapers, etc.
When IT came along, there was no tangible product line but the need existed to allocate resources, e.g. engineers, to best support its customers. This consequently created Project Portfolio Management, defined as
“the centralised management of one or more portfolios, and involves identifying, prioritising, authorising, managing, and controlling projects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives” – Project Management Institute (PMI)
As you can see, the Project Portfolio Management fits well in a waterfall type environment.
When digital products came along, the traditional Product Portfolio Management approach began to struggle.
A digital product often appears as a single product from the customer’s perspective, e.g. Google Search. But the product organization for Google Search has many product teams with their own underlying “product areas”. It is a “one-product” portfolio. How do you define the categories for product investments when there are no easily separable product lines? How do you evaluate and decide which part(s) of Google Search to focus or reduce investment?
With the adoption of agile development, the Project Portfolio Management with pre-defined fix scoped projects no longer worked.
Instead the engineering teams work collaboratively with product managers early on to design much better solutions to customer problems. However if product managers start working with engineers on all ideas, all the time, across teams, it can become very chaotic and confusing.
These were the “new” challenges we faced 15 years ago at PayPal as it underwent Agile transformation. We had to tweak the two PPM methods as well as, build a new portfolio product management practice to support digital products in an agile world. It is now called the Responsive Product Portfolio Management (Responsive PPM).
Here is a summary of the key differences in the 3 iterations of PPM:
|Product Portfolio||Project Portfolio||Responsive Portfolio|
|Investment Inputs||Capital||Money or Skilled Resources||Money or Skilled Resources|
|Investment Options||Product lines||Projects||Multi dimensional factors|
|Return measure||Revenue or profit||Project delivery (On time / budget)||Multi dimensional metrics|
Regarding investment inputs, Responsive PPM uses the skilled resources. The skilled resources are the primary resources, e.g. iOS developers, or Data Engineers, needed to build products. When multiple agile product pods require the same team / skills, aka Resource Contention, a portfolio allocation approach is applied, followed by a more quantitative prioritization within the same portfolio dimension.
Regarding investment options, Responsive PPM takes a multidimensional approach. One dimension could be business goals, e.g. grow new accounts or retain existing customers. Another dimension could be market segments e.g. enterprise, SMB or international. Yet another dimension could be types of product investments such as growing core capabilities, expanding to adjacent markets, or new product innovation. This allows both a big picture level of allocation by portfolio dimension, and carries the spirit of portfolio intent into each agile pod (product manager + her teams) for aligned innovation and collaboration.
Regarding measures of portfolio outcomes, Responsive PPM also takes a multidimensional approach to include both monetary metrics like revenue, and other metrics such as new market penetration velocity, platform uptime, or NPS scores. Overall, these metrics reflect the various goals the product organizations need to achieve.
How do you apply the latest PPM best practices?
As you can see by now, a winning product organization does not “peanut butter” resources. It defines portfolio goals responsively to the changing state of market and product performance in many dimensions. Additionally, they allocate resources according to the strategies and focuses.
Is Responsive PPM relevant to individual product managers who may not have control of the entire company’s product portfolio? The answer is a resounding yes.
Portfolio management is the craft of managing complexity and delivering the best product outcomes given constraints.
Every product manager leads a portfolio since their product or product area needs to support a number of goals, multiple segments, and various themes. The Responsive PPM approach can also help product managers to effectively prioritize competing needs from all dimensions and balance the near term goals and longer term vision.
It is important to put your thoughts “on paper” because it not only helps you think better, it also helps you communicate and achieve buy-in from your various stakeholders on why you are building what you are building and where you are now.
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